Scattering Deutsch

Scattering Deutsch Beispiele aus dem PONS Wörterbuch (redaktionell geprüft)

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Scattering Deutsch

Übersetzung für 'scattering' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung für 'scattering' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung von scattering – Englisch–Deutsch Wörterbuch. scattering. noun. ○​. a small amount scattered here and there. das Verstreute. a scattering of sugar. DE Streuung sich zerstreuend streuend vergeudend verschleudernd verstreuend. Vielen Dank! Wenn Sie es aktivieren, können sie den Vokabeltrainer Beste Spielothek in KС†ckte finden weitere Funktionen nutzen. Wählen Sie ein Wörterbuch aus. We are sorry for the inconvenience. Folgen Ourobos uns. However, the results of experiments on the filled polystyrene films deviated more or less from those expected, depending on the wavelength interval. Increasing the density intensifies the effect and makes the scattering more visible. Mehr lesen. Mein Suchverlauf Meine Favoriten.

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Scattering Deutsch Airy succeeded in to give a detailed but approximate description including diffraction and interference effects. The experimentally accessible scattering cross section is determined mainly by the dynamical structure factor of the electrons. Weitere Informationen. Die Tamarianer vertieften das Streuungsfeld in die D-Region. Bitte versuchen Sie click to see more erneut. Hier hast du beides in einem!

A smaller focus of the laser beam yields a coarser speckle pattern, a lower number of speckle on the detector, and thus a larger second order autocorrelation.

Dynamic light scattering provides insight into the dynamic properties of soft materials by measuring single scattering events, meaning that each detected photon has been scattered by the sample exactly once.

However, the application to many systems of scientific and industrial relevance has been limited due to often-encountered multiple scattering, wherein photons are scattered multiple times by the sample before being detected.

Accurate interpretation becomes exceedingly difficult for systems with nonnegligible contributions from multiple scattering. Especially for larger particles and those with high refractive index contrast, this limits the technique to very low particle concentrations, and a large variety of systems are, therefore, excluded from investigations with dynamic light scattering.

However, as shown by Schaetzel, [5] it is possible to suppress multiple scattering in dynamic light scattering experiments via a cross-correlation approach.

The general idea is to isolate singly scattered light and suppress undesired contributions from multiple scattering in a dynamic light scattering experiment.

Different implementations of cross-correlation light scattering have been developed and applied.

Currently, the most widely used scheme is the so-called 3D-dynamic light scattering method. Once the autocorrelation data have been generated, different mathematical approaches can be employed to determine 'information' from it.

Analysis of the scattering is facilitated when particles do not interact through collisions or electrostatic forces between ions.

Particle-particle collisions can be suppressed by dilution, and charge effects are reduced by the use of salts to collapse the electrical double layer.

The simplest approach is to treat the first order autocorrelation function as a single exponential decay. This is appropriate for a monodisperse population.

The translational diffusion coefficient D t may be derived at a single angle or at a range of angles depending on the wave vector q.

Small spherical particles will show no angular dependence, hence no anisotropy. A high quality analysis should always be performed at several scattering angles multiangle DLS.

This becomes even more important in a polydisperse sample with an unknown particle size distribution.

At certain angles the scattering intensity of some particles will completely overwhelm the weak scattering signal of other particles, thus making them invisible to the data analysis at this angle.

DLS instruments which only work at a fixed angle can only deliver good results for some particles. Thus the indicated precision of a DLS instrument with only one detection angle is only ever true for certain particles.

D t is often used to calculate the hydrodynamic radius of a sphere through the Stokes—Einstein equation.

It is important to note that the size determined by dynamic light scattering is the size of a sphere that moves in the same manner as the scatterer.

So, for example, if the scatterer is a random coil polymer, the determined size is not the same as the radius of gyration determined by static light scattering.

It is also useful to point out that the obtained size will include any other molecules or solvent molecules that move with the particle. So, for example, colloidal gold with a layer of surfactant will appear larger by dynamic light scattering which includes the surfactant layer than by transmission electron microscopy which does not "see" the layer due to poor contrast.

In most cases, samples are polydisperse. Thus, the autocorrelation function is a sum of the exponential decays corresponding to each of the species in the population.

However, this is known as an ill-posed problem. The methods described below and others have been developed to extract as much useful information as possible from an autocorrelation function.

One of the most common methods is the cumulant method, [10] [11] from which in addition to the sum of the exponentials above, more information can be derived about the variance of the system as follows:.

A third-order polydispersity index may also be derived but this is necessary only if the particles of the system are highly polydisperse.

The z-averaged translational diffusion coefficient D z may be derived at a single angle or at a range of angles depending on the wave vector q.

The Maximum entropy method is an analysis method that has great developmental potential. The method is also used for the quantification of sedimentation velocity data from analytical ultracentrifugation.

If the particle in question is not spherical, rotational motion must be considered as well because the scattering of the light will be different depending on orientation.

According to Pecora, rotational Brownian motion will affect the scattering when a particle fulfills two conditions; they must be both optically and geometrically anisotropic.

In its most succinct form the equation appears as. In , Peter R. Lang and his team decided to use dynamic light scattering to determine the particle length and aspect ratio of short gold nanorods.

Both relaxation states were observed in VV geometry and the diffusion coefficients of both motions were used to calculate the aspect ratios of the gold nanoparticles.

DLS is used to characterize size of various particles including proteins, polymers, micelles, vesicles, [18] carbohydrates, nanoparticles, biological cells [19] and gels.

This measurement depends on the size of the particle core, the size of surface structures, particle concentration, and the type of ions in the medium.

Since DLS essentially measures fluctuations in scattered light intensity due to diffusing particles, the diffusion coefficient of the particles can be determined.

DLS software of commercial instruments typically displays the particle population at different diameters. If the system is monodisperse, there should only be one population, whereas a polydisperse system would show multiple particle populations.

If there is more than one size population present in a sample then either the CONTIN analysis should be applied for photon correlation spectroscopy instruments, or the power spectrum method should be applied for Doppler shift instruments.

Stability studies can be done conveniently using DLS. Periodical DLS measurements of a sample can show whether the particles aggregate over time by seeing whether the hydrodynamic radius of the particle increases.

If particles aggregate, there will be a larger population of particles with a larger radius. In some DLS machines, stability depending on temperature can be analyzed by controlling the temperature in situ.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scanning ion occlusion sensing Nanoparticle tracking analysis Diffusion coefficient Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy Stokes radius Static light scattering Light scattering Diffusing-wave spectroscopy Protein—protein interactions Differential dynamic microscopy Multi-angle light scattering Differential Static Light Scatter DSLS.

Dynamic Light Scattering. Annual Review of Physical Chemistry. When radiation is only scattered by one localized scattering center, this is called single scattering.

It is very common that scattering centers are grouped together; in such cases, radiation may scatter many times, in what is known as multiple scattering.

The main difference between the effects of single and multiple scattering is that single scattering can usually be treated as a random phenomenon, whereas multiple scattering, somewhat counterintuitively, can be modeled as a more deterministic process because the combined results of a large number of scattering events tend to average out.

Multiple scattering can thus often be modeled well with diffusion theory. Because the location of a single scattering center is not usually well known relative to the path of the radiation, the outcome, which tends to depend strongly on the exact incoming trajectory, appears random to an observer.

This type of scattering would be exemplified by an electron being fired at an atomic nucleus. In this case, the atom's exact position relative to the path of the electron is unknown and would be unmeasurable, so the exact trajectory of the electron after the collision cannot be predicted.

Single scattering is therefore often described by probability distributions. With multiple scattering, the randomness of the interaction tends to be averaged out by a large number of scattering events, so that the final path of the radiation appears to be a deterministic distribution of intensity.

This is exemplified by a light beam passing through thick fog. Multiple scattering is highly analogous to diffusion , and the terms multiple scattering and diffusion are interchangeable in many contexts.

Optical elements designed to produce multiple scattering are thus known as diffusers. Coherent backscattering , an enhancement of backscattering that occurs when coherent radiation is multiply scattered by a random medium, is usually attributed to weak localization.

Not all single scattering is random, however. A well-controlled laser beam can be exactly positioned to scatter off a microscopic particle with a deterministic outcome, for instance.

Such situations are encountered in radar scattering as well, where the targets tend to be macroscopic objects such as people or aircraft.

Similarly, multiple scattering can sometimes have somewhat random outcomes, particularly with coherent radiation.

The random fluctuations in the multiply scattered intensity of coherent radiation are called speckles.

Speckle also occurs if multiple parts of a coherent wave scatter from different centers. In certain rare circumstances, multiple scattering may only involve a small number of interactions such that the randomness is not completely averaged out.

These systems are considered to be some of the most difficult to model accurately. The description of scattering and the distinction between single and multiple scattering are tightly related to wave—particle duality.

Scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles. Prosaically, wave scattering corresponds to the collision and scattering of a wave with some material object, for instance sunlight scattered by rain drops to form a rainbow.

Scattering also includes the interaction of billiard balls on a table, the Rutherford scattering or angle change of alpha particles by gold nuclei , the Bragg scattering or diffraction of electrons and X-rays by a cluster of atoms, and the inelastic scattering of a fission fragment as it traverses a thin foil.

More precisely, scattering consists of the study of how solutions of partial differential equations , propagating freely "in the distant past", come together and interact with one another or with a boundary condition , and then propagate away "to the distant future".

Electromagnetic waves are one of the best known and most commonly encountered forms of radiation that undergo scattering. Scattering of light and radio waves especially in radar is particularly important.

Several different aspects of electromagnetic scattering are distinct enough to have conventional names.

Major forms of elastic light scattering involving negligible energy transfer are Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering. Inelastic scattering includes Brillouin scattering , Raman scattering , inelastic X-ray scattering and Compton scattering.

Light scattering is one of the two major physical processes that contribute to the visible appearance of most objects, the other being absorption.

Surfaces described as white owe their appearance to multiple scattering of light by internal or surface inhomogeneities in the object, for example by the boundaries of transparent microscopic crystals that make up a stone or by the microscopic fibers in a sheet of paper.

More generally, the gloss or lustre or sheen of the surface is determined by scattering. Highly scattering surfaces are described as being dull or having a matte finish, while the absence of surface scattering leads to a glossy appearance, as with polished metal or stone.

Spectral absorption, the selective absorption of certain colors, determines the color of most objects with some modification by elastic scattering.

The apparent blue color of veins in skin is a common example where both spectral absorption and scattering play important and complex roles in the coloration.

Light scattering can also create color without absorption, often shades of blue, as with the sky Rayleigh scattering , the human blue iris , and the feathers of some birds Prum et al.

Rayleigh scattering is a process in which electromagnetic radiation including light is scattered by a small spherical volume of variant refractive indexes, such as a particle, bubble, droplet, or even a density fluctuation.

This effect was first modeled successfully by Lord Rayleigh , from whom it gets its name. In this size regime, the exact shape of the scattering center is usually not very significant and can often be treated as a sphere of equivalent volume.

The inherent scattering that radiation undergoes passing through a pure gas is due to microscopic density fluctuations as the gas molecules move around, which are normally small enough in scale for Rayleigh's model to apply.

Along with absorption, such scattering is a major cause of the attenuation of radiation by the atmosphere. The degree of scattering varies as a function of the ratio of the particle diameter to the wavelength of the radiation, along with many other factors including polarization , angle, and coherence.

For larger diameters, the problem of electromagnetic scattering by spheres was first solved by Gustav Mie , and scattering by spheres larger than the Rayleigh range is therefore usually known as Mie scattering.

In the Mie regime, the shape of the scattering center becomes much more significant and the theory only applies well to spheres and, with some modification, spheroids and ellipsoids.

Closed-form solutions for scattering by certain other simple shapes exist, but no general closed-form solution is known for arbitrary shapes.

Both Mie and Rayleigh scattering are considered elastic scattering processes, in which the energy and thus wavelength and frequency of the light is not substantially changed.

This shift involves a slight change in energy. At values of the ratio of particle diameter to wavelength more than about 10, the laws of geometric optics are mostly sufficient to describe the interaction of light with the particle, and at this point, the interaction is not usually described as scattering.

For modeling of scattering in cases where the Rayleigh and Mie models do not apply such as irregularly shaped particles, there are many numerical methods that can be used.

The most common are finite-element methods which solve Maxwell's equations to find the distribution of the scattered electromagnetic field.

Sophisticated software packages exist which allow the user to specify the refractive index or indices of the scattering feature in space, creating a 2- or sometimes 3-dimensional model of the structure.

For relatively large and complex structures, these models usually require substantial execution times on a computer.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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