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Futrell is citing Livy, 9. Paestum was colonized by Rome in BC. Livy's account summary 16 places beast-hunts and gladiatorial munera within this single munus.
See Welch , p. Welch is citing Ausanius: Seneca simply says they were "war captives". Evidence of "Samnite" as an insult in earlier writings fades as Samnium is absorbed into the Republic.
Quoted in Futrell , pp. Livy's published works are often embellished with illustrative rhetorical detail. See Gladiator types.
Welch is citing Livy, The Aemilii Lepidii were one of the most important families in Rome at the time, and probably owned a gladiator school ludus.
Wiedemann is citing Valerius Maximus, 2. Gladiator gangs were used by Caesar and others to overawe and "persuade". Gladiators could be enrolled to serve noble households; some household slaves may have been raised and trained for this.
For more details see Plutarch's Julius Caesar , 5. See also Pliny's Historia Naturalis , Antiochus IV Epiphanes of Greece was keen to upstage his Roman allies, but gladiators were becoming increasingly expensive, and to save costs, all his were local volunteers.
Kyle is citing Cicero's Lex Tullia Ambitu. Wiedemann is citing Cassius Dio, Augustus's games each involved an average gladiator pairs.
Brown is citing Dio Cassius, De Spectaculis , Compared to "pagan" noxii , Christian deaths in the arena would have been few. Relatio , 8.
See Theoderet's Historia Ecclesiastica , 5. The Jewish War , 6. C, at Lewis and Short Perseus Project.
See also Cassius Dio's accusation of entrapment by informers to provide "arena slaves" under Claudius; Futrell , p.
Futrell is citing Cassius Dio. Lives , "Tiberius", 7. Lives , "Nero", Fox is citing Pliny. Commodus , 73 Epitome. Commodus was assassinated and posthumously declared a public enemy but was later deified.
Based on fragmentary Pompeian remains and citing of Pliny's Historia Naturalis , Retrieved 21 April Moral Essays , B fully cited in Futrell , pp.
Gladiatorial banquet on mosaic, El Djem. See pompa circensis for the similar procession before games were held in the circus. Futrell is citing Seneca's On Providence , 3.
Author's drawing. In the Eastern provinces of the later Empire the state archiereis combined the roles of editor , Imperial cult priest and lanista , giving gladiatoria munera in which the use of sharp weapons seems an exceptional honour.
CS1 maint: location link Fagan speculates that Nero was perversely defying the crowd's expectations, or perhaps trying to please a different kind of crowd.
Liber de Spectaculis , Kyle is citing Robert. This is evidenced on a roughly inscribed libellus. Representations 27 : 27, 28, note Lives , "Caligula", Futrell is citing Cicero's Tuscullan Disputations , 2.
Marks on the bones of several gladiators suggest a sword thrust into the base of the throat and down towards the heart. Tertullian describes these events as examples of hollow impiety, in which Rome's false deities are acceptably impersonated by low and murderous persons for the purposes of human sacrifice and evil entertainment.
See Kyle , pp. Lives , "Tiberius", Suetonius has the populace wish the same fate on Tiberius 's body, a form of damnatio : to be thrown in the Tiber, or left unburied, or "dragged with the hook".
Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. The single name form on a gladiator memorial usually indicates a slave, two a freedman or discharged auctoratus and, very rare among gladiators, three " tria nomina " a freedman or a full Roman citizen.
See also vroma. Futrell is citing Robert, 12, 24, and Futrell is citing Robert, Futrell is citing George Ville. Edict , Book 6; Futrell , pp.
Futrell is citing Digest , 3. Letters , This had probably began under Augustus. Futrell is citing Petronius's Satyricon , See also Tiberius's inducement to re-enlist.
Satyricon , "He vows to endure to be burned, to be bound, to be beaten, and to be killed by the sword. Futrell is citing Quintilian's Oratorical Institute , 5.
Futrell is citing Epictetus's Discourse , 3. Facial stigmata represented extreme social degradation. Futrell is citing Juvenal's Satire , 6 [Oxford Fragment 7.
The burning alive of a soldier who refused to become an auctoratus at a Spanish school in 43 BC is exceptional only because he was a citizen, technically exempt from such compulsion and penalty.
AD — Implications for Differences in Diet". Bibcode : PLoSO Times Online. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 24 March Manumission was seldom absolute.
Terms of release were negotiated between master and slave; Digests Metamorphoses , 4. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.
Futrell is citing Tertullian's De Spectaculis , Futrell is citing Plutarch's Moral Essays , B.
Barton is citing Cassius Dio, Bronze tablet found at Larino, Italy, and published in Futrell is citing Cassius Dio, Barton is citing Juvenal, 8.
The American Journal of Philology. Caius Gracchus , The provision of permanent seating was thought a particularly objectionable luxury.
Futrell is citing Martial's Epigrams , 5. Welch is citing CIL , X. Potter and Mattingly are citing Pliny the Elder, The amphitheatre was commissioned by T.
Statilius Taurus. According to Pliny, its three storeys were marble-clad, housed 3, bronze statues and seated 80, spectators.
It was probably wooden-framed in part. Even emperors who disliked munera were thus obliged to attend them. Lives , "Augustus", See also Tacitus's Annals , It was notably fulfilled and celebrated in the battlefield devotio of two consular Decii ; firstly by the father and later by his son.
Mattern is citing Tacitus's Annals , 1. Mattern is citing Cassius Dio, 72, Futrell is citing Cicero's Letters to Friends , 2. Barton is citing Seneca's Suasoriae , 6.
For bustuarius , with reference to Clodius's alleged impious disturbance at the funeral of Marius , see Cicero's In Pisonem Against Piso.
See Bagnani , p. Cicero's unflattering references to Marcus Antonius as gladiator are in his 2nd Philippic.
Tacitus, in Annals Roman commentators associated munera with Capua's proverbial luxury and excess.
Futrell is citing Lucian's Toxaris , 58— This should be considered scandalous and noteworthy, rather than common. Satires , 6. Commentary on the "Aeneid" of Vergil , De Spectaculis , 22; Kyle , p.
Bustuarius is found in Tertullian's De Spectaculis , Hecyra , Prologue II. Natural History , Retrieved 9 November Auguet, Roland Cruelty and Civilization: The Roman Games.
New York, New York: Routledge. Bagnani, Gilbert January Classical Philology. Barton, Carlin A. Borkowski, J.
Andrew; du Plessis, Paul J. Textbook on Roman Law. Brunet, Stephen In Paul Christesen; Donald G. Kyle eds. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.
Carter, Michael Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies. Archived from the original PDF on 26 February Coleman, K. The Journal of Roman Studies.
Curry, Andrew November—December Retrieved 21 March Edwards, Catherine Death in Ancient Rome. Everitt, Anthony New York: Random House. Fagan, Garrett G.
Fox, Robin Lane New York: Basic Books. Futrell, Alison A Sourcebook on the Roman Games. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing.
Gibbon, Edward; Womersley, David New York, New York: Penguin. Grant, Michael London, United Kingdom: Penguin Books.
Grossschmidt, K. Forensic Science International. Hopkins, Keith; Beard, Mary The Colosseum. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Jacobelli, Luciana Gladiators at Pompeii. Los Angeles, California: Getty Publications. Jones, C. Journal of Roman Studies.
Junkelmann, Marcus Mainz, Germany: Verlag Philipp von Zabern. Kyle, Donald G. Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome.
London, United Kingdom: Routledge. Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World. Lintott, Andrew The Constitution of the Roman Republic.
Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press. Mattern, Susan P. Rome and the Enemy: Imperial Strategy in the Principate. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
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These engines are known for their toughness and excellent power output. From to a rebodied version of the J was built and sold as the Jeep CJ , featuring a CJ-like nose and cab, as well as a very boxy redesigned rear truck-bed, somewhat resembling that of a Land-Rover.
Chrysler bought out AMC in The full-size Jeep Pickup line was not only an aging model, but also competed directly with the broader range of Dodge trucks.
Chrysler discontinued the full-size Jeep trucks, but continued to build the luxurious and highly profitable Grand Wagoneer , which shared the chassis with the large pickups.
After the Chrysler buyout, the compact Jeep Comanche pickup based on the Jeep Cherokee XJ platform received only minor changes and its production continued until Military versions of the civilian Jeep pickup included the M and M, built from to They were built under contract for nations in addition to the United States.
The Swedish Air Force acquired Gladiator vehicles in the early s. They were given the local designations Klargöringsbil and Klargöringsbil , with the latter variant being equipped with a hardtop.
The vehicles were modified to be used by aircraft groundcrew for mobile flight line operations in the Swedish Bas 90 system, and could carry trailers with equipment and tow aircraft.
It is often informally referred to as "The Dallas Jeep". From the "Honcho" trim package was offered on the J10 pickup.
It consisted of bold striping and decals, and was offered with factory extras such as the Levi's interior or a roll bar. The content of the Honcho package varied from year to year, but "always included the wide-track look of the Cherokee Chief.
The Honcho was one in a series of special decal packages offered for J-Series trucks in the mid to late s, which included the — Golden Eagle  and the "" version which offered an optional Citizens' Band radio along with the decals.
The Honcho package was only available on the sportside stepside and short bed trucks. Between and , only 1, of the sportside versions were produced.
Decal packages were available for many of Jeep's vehicles in the s, including a package for the Jeep Cherokee called the Cherokee Chief.
The model year Laredo package was perhaps the most luxurious one, including leather bucket seats, and leather-wrapped steering wheel, chrome interior trim, and a state-of-the-art Alpine sound system.
Jeep has shown numerous concept pickup trucks, and officials at the automaker have "expressed interest in putting such a vehicle into production.
A production-ready version of a Jeep Scrambler pickup was shown in at the North American Dealers Association, but was pulled after a few hours.
According to Motor Trend , there might be a "production Jeep pickup truck in the works". In late a new Jeep Gladiator concept was introduced.
While not officially intended to be sold, it was used as a demonstration "that a Jeep pickup was in the dark recesses of DaimlerChrysler's brain trust.
The Gladiator concept features an open-air canvas roof, fold-down windshield , removable doors, and has an expandable truck bed.
The Gladiator has a 2. The truck has a 6-speed manual transmission. Ground clearance is A "midgate" made the concept Gladiator truck closer to an imitation of the Chevrolet Avalanche , "than an attempt to revive its namesake's glory.
At the Jeep Safari in Moab, Utah, Jeep revealed seven new concepts including a Crew Chief pickup with four-doors and a 5-foot cargo bed.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Series of Jeep pickup trucks. For other uses, see Gladiator disambiguation.
This article is about the Gladiator. Main article: Kaiser Jeep M Retrieved 16 January Jeep Dually Registry.